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Corporazioni religiose soppresse dal governo francese Contributors Erin E. She is working on her third book project, which will consider artistic exchange virus btc cult traditions between Italy and India during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

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An early modern Europeanist with a strong interest in world history, his research focuses on political and diplomatic history, especially the relationship between small European states and the broader early modern world.

Her research focuses on early modern com- mercial, diplomatic, and cross-cultural relationships between Europe and East Asia. Cinzia Maria Sicca is a full professor of art history at the University of Pisa.

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She has received major research grants, including a Getty Collaborative Research Grant and a number of grants from the Italian Ministry of University and Research. Joseph M. Silva teaches courses on medieval and early modern Italian art and archi- tecture at Providence College and the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth.

These conversations, centered on the possibilities of a global history of Medici Tuscany, led to three panels at the Renaissance Society of America conference, held in Boston in Some of the papers presented there became the backbone for this book, while other important contributors joined the project at a later stage.

Gerald Hill helped with a first round of copy editing of our volume before submit- ting the manuscript and prepared the index, while Isabella Vitti and Katie Armstrong at Routledge provided enthusiastic support for the publication of our volume. This volume explores how the Grand Dukes pursued ways to expand their political, commercial, and cultural networks beyond Europe, cultivating complex relations porcellana banning bitcoin trading the Ottoman Empire btc origin other Islamicate regions, and looking further east to India, China, and Porcellana banning bitcoin trading.

The chapters that follow show how casting a global, cross-cultural net was part and parcel of the Medicean political vision.

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Diplomatic gifts, items of commercial exchange, objects looted at war, maritime connections, and political plots were an inherent part of how the Medici projected their state on the global arena.

Once again, the arts conceptualized this vision with unparalleled lucidity.

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The work was made for the Salone dei Cinquecento, the hall in Palazzo Vecchio that Giorgio Vasari envisioned as a visual journey into the formation of the Ducal and later Grand Ducal political identity of the Tuscan state. Upon realizing 2 Francesco Freddolini Figure 1. Transferred from the Library of Congress, This episode, becoming popular in the sixteenth century, was celebrated by Michelangelo Buonarroti and Benedetto Varchi as a mark of Florentine identity.

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In the background, a painting within the painting portrays Tuscany seated on a throne in an ideal dialogue with Asia, Europe, Africa, and America. Tuscany wears the Grand Ducal insignia; it is, unmistakably, Medici Tuscany vis-à-vis the continents.

Once we direct our gaze eastwards, however, we are faced with a different gamut of historical and historiographical problems. A longer tradition of interreligious tensions, dating Introduction 3 Figure 1.

These were further enriched by the long-standing trade routes that had been already established with Asia, which in turn became more multifaceted through the mediation or lack thereof of Russia, especially over the course of the seventeenth century.

As Geoffrey C. This volume contributes to this historiographical stream by explor- ing how the Grand Dukes promoted such connections.

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Exchanges were crucial for Florence when looking East, and a network of political and infrastructural relations was essential to support them. Courtly spaces articulated this strategy through images and objects on display. Livorno—as the chapters by Tazzara, Iannello, and Sicca demonstrate—epitomizes the ambition of the Grand Dukes, whose strategy was to find a role within exchanges that transcended the Mediterranean.

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A local fact can have connections with much larger contexts, and things mutate—physically, semantically, and ontologically—through space and time and quanto guadagnano i minatori bitcoin relation porcellana banning bitcoin trading cross-cultural exchanges.

For the authors in this volume, the archive is a means to explore the social life of things on the move across cultures, to show how regimes of value and meanings change through exchange, and to reveal how the onto- logical status of objects is modified by their display or use within new frameworks of social and religious rituals.

We can follow Islamicate objects reaching Florence and then transitioning to Bologna, while Islamic banners are given a new ontological status in Pisa—almost forced to convert, as Joseph M. Silva argues.

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At the same time, British merchants establish commercial agreements with coral sup- pliers, thanks to privileged conditions in the port of Livorno. Benay, we can explore how India was perceived, consumed, and shaped as a narrative in Flor- ence. Further primary sources reveal how the Medici exported luxury objects to Asia, while quenching their thirst for knowledge about China through a myriad of routes, objects, and people by way of Russia.

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In this volume, the oscillation between micro and macro is essential for understanding Medicean Tuscany as a Eurasian entity. Most studies have focused on Florence and the Medici family as the exclusive center of interest; however, to understand the Grand Duchy as a complex geopolitical entity, our study explores how the cities of Pisa and Livorno played a crucial role in positioning the Medicean state vis-à-vis the global world.

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However, the Grand Duke was not alone. The visual and material culture of spolia in Pisa, where the Medici and their Knights of St.

Stephen performed rituals that reminded them of their role as defenders of the Christian faith, as well as the ubiquitous presence of Livorno in almost all chapters as the essential infra- structural and institutional context for the mobility of objects and people, show how Figure 1.

A selective focus on Florence, to the detriment of other cities in Tuscany, has been especially prominent in the field of art porcellana banning bitcoin trading consequence of studies largely devoted to the history of collecting, exploring objects imported by the Medici, or to the representation of other cultures at the Grand Ducal court. This volume aims to counterbalance this approach, not only in terms of its geopolitical emphasis, but by revealing how the flow of objects towards Florence represents only half of the narra- tive.

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As the chapters in this volume collectively argue, mobility was not unidirectional. The consumption of objects from the Eurasian context in Florence coexisted with the projection of Medicean influence on other cultures and the export of Grand Ducal commodities to other regions.

As such, a twofold way of examining exchanges—to and from Tuscany—becomes both the object of our study and the methodological choice that enables us to better situate the Medici Grand Dukes within a narrative of global interactions.

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Most studies on global circulation of objects—art, or material culture— tend to privilege a mobility towards Europe, exploring the often unstable ontological status of objects and their agency within Europe and investigating how non-European communities developed infrastructures for the production and commercialization of things for western consumption.

Ample historiography has shown how Florentine merchants and agents—Andrea Corsali or Filippo Sassetti, just to mention two prominent protagonists of this story—sent infor- mation on distant lands, shaping narratives of alterity and fostering the demand for exotic objects.

Several authors of the chapters in this volume are concerned with the circumstances of production of these luxury objects and on the networks of mobility that enabled them to travel and become transcultural agents. Supported by the Porcellana banning bitcoin trading, Tuscan merchants and courtiers or British ships stopping in Livorno could carry such objects and export Medicean signature works across long trajectories.

Он надеялся, что не будет никакой необходимости еще в одном конфликте, но если бы такой конфликт и возник, он был теперь подготовлен к нему несравненно. Уже самый первый взгляд на лица членов Совета подсказал Олвину, каково их решение, Он не был ни удивлен, ни особенно разочарован и не выказал никаких чувств, которые могли бы ожидать от него советники, когда слушал, как председатель подводит итоги обсуждения. -- Мы всесторонне рассмотрели ситуацию, которая порождена твоим открытием, Олвин, -- начал председатель, -- и пришли к следующему единогласному решению. Поскольку никто не желает каких-либо изменений в нашем образе жизни и поскольку только раз в несколько миллионов лет рождается кто-то, кто способен покинуть Диаспар, даже если средства к этому существуют для каждого из нас, то туннельная система, ведущая в Лиз, не является необходимой и, очень возможно, даже опасна. Вот почему вход в нее отныне закрыт.

Gtx 1070 bitcoin mineraria was, of course, a profitable market, but at the same time—and perhaps more importantly—a means to establish an identity on the international political arena. Even though we are limiting our scope to the Eurasian context, our approach shapes a global history of Medicean Tuscany in terms of methodology, especially by looking at how the Grand Duchy contributed to—and existed as a node of—complex transna- tional interactions.

World history and global history do not always coincide. It is precisely this multidirectional flow of things and people along the lines of a complex infrastructure of mobility, instantiated by Livorno and fostered by the Medici politics, that lets the specificity of Grand Ducal Tuscany emerge. At the same time, they succeeded in developing a network of commercial and diplomatic relations that projected the Grand Ducal state in a global context.

The Medici expanded these traditional merchant networks operating along international routes. Such networks, and such a tradition, survived the Tus- can dynasty, as Cinzia Sicca in this volume shows. In addition to merchants and, of course, diplomats, the Medici cultivated networks among the religious orders, especially the Jesuits, to obtain information and have.

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